Orthopedic Conditions


  • Is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.” Pain is subjective in nature and defined by the person experiencing it. Pain is usually associated with a particular type of injury or disease process, such as sustained poor posture, infections, accidents, overuse, and inflammation, to name a few.
  • Acute Pain
  • Chronic Pain → It is defined as pain that persists longer than the normal course of natural healing and can occur anywhere in the body. The medical community’s understanding of chronic pain now includes the impact that the mind has in processing and interpreting pain signals.

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Upper (neck), Mid (thorax/ribcage), and Low Back (lumbar/sacral) Injuries:

  • Whiplash
  • Sprain and strain
  • Muscle spasm
  • Repetitive stress injuries
  • Spinal Stenosis
  • Radiculopathy
  • Disc herniation
  • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
  • Piriformis Syndrome
  • Sciatica
  • Pudendal Neuralgia
  • Spondylolysis
  • Spondylolisthesis
  • Facet Joint Arthritis
  • Coccygodynia (Tailbone pain): Refers to pain in and around the region of the coccyx or tailbone. It may involve the pelvic floor muscles and/or the gluteus maximus muscle. This condition is more common in women than men and may result from the following: falls resulting in direct injury of the coccyx (horseback riding, skiing); childbirth; direct pressure on the coccyx (e.g. sitting); strain (cycling, rowing)

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Shoulder Injuries:

  • Adhesive Capsulitis (frozen shoulder)
  • Rotator cuff tear (operative or non-operative)
  • Rotator Cuff Tendonitis
  • Rehabilitation post dislocation and healed fractures
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
  • Shoulder Instability
  • Labral Tears
  • Impingement Syndrome
  • Calcific Tendonitis of the Shoulder
  • Biceps Tendonitis and/or Rupture

Elbow Injuries:

  • Golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis)
  • Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis)
  • Sprain/strain (conservative or post-operative)
  • Fractures
  • Olecranon Bursitis
  • Osteoarthritis

Wrist Injuries:

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Sprain/strain or fractures (conservative or post-operative)
  • Osteoarthritis of the Wrist Joint
  • Ligament Injuries of the Wrist
  • De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis
  • Trigger Finger

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Hip Conditions:

  • Acetabular labral tears
  • Trochanteric Bursitis of the Hip
  • Tendonitis
  • Total hip replacement
  • Osteoarthritis of the Hip
  • Hip Fractures
  • Hamstring injuries/strains
  • Iliotibial Band (ITB) tightness/syndrome
  • Post-surgical hip pain, weakness, tightness

Knee Injuries:

  • Patellofemoral syndrome
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear (operative or non-operative)
  • Meniscus tear (operative or non-operative)
  • Tendonitis
  • Total knee replacement
  • Patellar Tendonitis
  • Chondromalacia Patella
  • Prepatellar Bursitis
  • Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
  • Popliteal Cysts
  • Plica Syndrome
  • Pes Anserine Bursitis of the Knee
  • Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee
  • Osteoarthritis of the Knee
  • Iliotibial Band Syndrome
  • Articular Cartilage Problems of the Knee
  • Posterior Tibial Tendonitis
  • Patellar and Quadriceps Tendonitis

Ankle Injuries:

  • Achilles’ tendonitis (Achilles’ heel) → may be due to tight heel cords
  • Peroneal tendonitis
  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Problems
  • Sprain/strain (conservative or post-operative)
  • Fractures

Foot/Toe Injuries:

  • Hallux Valgus
  • Plantar fascitis (heel pain)
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome
  • Post Bunionectomy rehabilitation
  • Sprain/strain (conservative or post-operative)
  • Fractures/stress fractures
  • Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Talus → injury to the talus bone in the ankle
  • Interdigital Neuroma (Morton’s Neuroma) → nerve pain between the toes
  • Tailor’s Bunion

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TMJ dysfunction:

  • Inflammation to the temporomandibular joint
  • Signs and symptoms: clicking, popping, and/or grinding (crepitus) in the jaw joint; tenderness or pain in the jaw joint; sore or painful muscles in the head, face, or neck; difficulty in chewing; fatigue of the jaw muscles after prolonged chewing or talking; difficulty opening and closing mouth fully; locking of the jaw in either the open or closed position; clenching or grinding the teeth; sensitivity of the teeth; nibbling or chewing on the inside of the cheek; and deviation of the jaw when opening or closing the mouth; neck and/or head pain, headaches (tension, migraine-like, sinus), tinnitus (ringing in the ear), nausea, or vertigo (dizziness).


  • The word osteoporosis literally means “porous bones.” It occurs when bones loose an excessive amount of their protein and mineral content, particularly calcium. Over time, bone mass, and therefore bone strength, is decreased. As a result, bones become fragile and break easily. Fractures, which are often the first sign of the disease, can affect any bone, but the most common locations are the hip, spine, and wrist. Osteoporosis is more common after menopause, when bone-protecting estrogen is considerably decreased.

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  • A chronic connective tissue pain syndrome, often generalized, and with no definitive known cause or cure.
  • Patients experience widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue, often to a disabling degree, as well as many other distressing symptoms. Periods of comfort are interspersed with periods of flare-ups without warning.
  • Signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia may include:
    • Fatigue – It can be both physical and mental and is a pronounced fatigue that leads to a significant reduction in the ability to carry out normal activities of daily living (ADL’s). The fatigue is usually present all the time to some degree and is not relieved by sleep; in fact it may be a lot worse upon waking, especially after a lot of activity the previous day.
    • Muscle and Joint Aches – These can occur anywhere in the body but the most common sites are the lower back and legs. The aching can be severe and is aggravated substantially by any exertion, physical or mental.
    • Poor concentration, memory loss (constantly forgetting simple information like names and numbers), inability to take in information (having to read the same thing over and over)
    • Pain in the jaw and facial muscles that can be severe.
    • Chronic Headache
    • Loss of balance or sensation of dizziness →This most often occurs upon standing up and the sufferer may feel faint and even black out.
    • Depression, anxiety and irritability are often present
    • Sleep disturbances are common and may present as
      • hypersomnolence (sleeping more than normal)
      • sleep reversal → sleep all day and awake at night
      • insomnia (inability to sleep)
      • Sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome (RLS) are also common.
    • Abdominal Pain/Digestive Disturbances → similar to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
    • PMS type symptoms – Painful menstrual periods (dysmenorrhea) and painful sexual intercourse (dyspareunia)

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  • Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis, and involves the progressive destruction of the articular cartilage and the formation of osteophytes (bone). It generally occurs as a result of wear and tear.
  • It affects the joints, muscles, ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, and many have the potential to affect other internal body areas.
  • Symptoms of arthritis include pain, tenderness, and limited function of joints. Inflammation of the joints from arthritis is characterized by joint stiffness, swelling, redness, and warmth. Osteoarthritis can result in weakness of muscles thereby resulting in loss of balance.

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